TOBACCO: Nicotina tabaccum.
This is one of the widely grown non food
commercial crop in the world. It belongs to the
family Saponaceae. It originated in Tropical
America. Tobacco is an agricultural product
processed from the leaves of plants in the
There are more than 70 species of tobacco in
the plant genus Nicotiana. The word nicotiana
(as well as nicotine) is in honor of Jean Nicot,
French ambassador to Portugal, who in 1559
sent it as a medicine to the court of Catherine de Medici.Tobacco is cultivated similarly to other
agricultural products. Seeds are sown in cold
frames or hotbeds to prevent attacks frominsects, and then transplanted into the fields.
Tobacco is an annual crop. which is usually
harvested mechanically or by hand. After
narvest, tobacco is stored for curing, which
allows for the slow oxidation and degradation
Carotenoids. This allows for the agricultural
Product to take on properties that are usually
tributed to the “smoothness” of the smoke.
tnbacso is packed into its
various forms of consumption, which include
smoking, chewing, snuffing, and so on.
Despite the obvious harmful effect of smoking.
tobacco has been widely cultivated as heavy
taxation makes the commodity a major source
of government revenue. Tobacco has the
property of stimulating the nerves due to its nicotine content.
Zimbabwe is the only tropical African country
to produce good tobacco for export. Malawi
also grows tobacco for export while Nigeria,
gAngola. Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique all
grow tobacco that is used locally to produce
Curing of tobacco
Curing and subsequent aging allow for the
in tobacco leaf. This process results in the
production of certain compoundsin the
contributes to the “smoothness” of the smoke.
slow oxidation and degradation of carotenoids
tobacco leaves that gives a sweet hay, tea,aromatic flavor that
oil, or fruity
Methods of curing tobacco
Air cured: In this method, tobacco is
hung in well-ventilated barns and allowed
to dry over a period of four to etght weeks.
Air-cured tobacco is low in sugar, which
gves the tobacco smoke a light, mild flavour, and high in nicotine.
flavor, and high in nicotine. Cigar and
burley tobaccos are air cured.
Fire cured tobacco is hung in large
barns where fires of hardwoods are kept on
continuous or tntermittent tow smoulder
and takes between three days and ten
weeks. depending on the proeess and the
tobacco. Fire curing produces a tobacco
low in sugar and high tn nicotine. PIpe
tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snufl are
Flue cured: This is a method of curing
whereby heat is distributed through out
the curing barn by metal pipes or tobacco
sticks, hung from tier-poles. The process
generally takes about a week. This method
produces cigarette tobacco that is high in
sugar and has medium to high levels of
Sun cured: in this method,tobacco are dried uncovered in the sun. This method is used in Turkey, Greece and other Mediterranean countries to produce Oriental tobacco. Sun cured tobacco is low in sugar and nicotine and is used in cigarettes.