Fossil evidence indicates that plants were affected by disease 250 million years ago. Loss of crops from plant diseases may result in hunger and starvation, especially in less developed countries where access to disease control methods is limited and annual loses of 30 to 50 percent are common for major crops, producing, catastrophic results for those who depend oh food crop for food and income and posing tremendous challenge to government in agricultural sector of the economy.

Plant disease out break can lead to famine, mass migration and death thereby presenting huge negative nfiuence on economic planning, political and cultural development. Losses from plant disease can have a significant economic impact, causing a reduction in income for drop producers and distributors and; higher prices for consumers.

Plant disease can as well threaten to wipe out anentire species. Plant cells contain special signaling

pathways (routes) that enhance tnel disease defense against insects, animals and pathogens. One such example involve plant hormone called Jasmonate (Jasmonic acia). in the absence of harmful stimuli, Jasmonate binds to a special protein called JAS proteins to regulate plant

growth, pollen production and other processes

involved in boosting (increasing) plant defense. Genes that produce Jasmonate and JAZ proteins represent

potential target for genetic engineering to produce plant varieties with increased resistant to diseases

Humans select and cultivate plants for food,clothing shelter, fibre and beauty.


Technological Advances In The Identification Of Plant Pathogenic Agents Are As Follows


Development in microscopy

Development in serology

Development in immunology

Development in molecular biology

Development in laboratory instrumentation


Epidemiology of plant diseases and



Plant disease epidemiologists strivefor an understanding of the cause and efrects of disease and develop strategies to intervene in situations

where loses may occur(Forecasting). Typically successful intervention will lead to a low enough level of diseases to be acceptabie depending upon the value of the crop Plat disease epidemiology and forecasting i often looked at from a multi-disciplinary approach, requiring biological statistical,agronomic and

ecological perspectives. In Biology is necessary for understanding the pathogen and its life cycle. It is: also necessary for understanding the physiology of the crop and ho the pathogen is adversely affecting it statistical models are often applied in order to summarize arid describe the complexity of plant disease epidemiology, so that disease processes can be more readily understood in determining how plant diseases may best be manage. Policy can be influential in the ocurrence. of diseases through such action such as restrictions on imports from sources where a disease occurs since pathogen spores production is often seasonal,visible plant disease often ocCur several days or more after spores are first detected. Which can be used to produce a weather based disease used to forecast which can be used to monitor pathogen populations. Therefore, forecasting is a tool (an instrument) that help management in itS attempts to cope with the future’s uncertainty with regards pathogenic spore formation and distribution. Farmers utilize forecasting to determine if disease will increase or decrease and to determine stock price.

Updated: July 29, 2020 — 1:13 am

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