In Nigeria, the felling or cutting down of trees for timber
production is done in two places: Forest Reserves and Free Areas.
Procedure for Fellinga Tree
1. Free Areas: This is an area that is outside the Forest Reserve
When a timber contractor, or any other person who has big trees
on his farm or land, finds a tree that he wants to cut down to
produce timber, he will call the Forest Guard to come and inspect
the tree. After inspection, the timber contractor will pay some
money called Tariff to the government and a permit or authority
to fell the tree will be issued. The trees which are not big enough
to produce good timbers are not allowed to be cut down. The
amount paid for a tree is based on the commercial importance of the tree.
2. Forest Reserve: In reserves the government marks out an arta
and then allows the trees in that area to be felled. Big companies
dealing with timber usually enjoy these facilities rather than
The timber from the reserves is paid for on an area basis and the
charges vary according to the big trees there. After the best trees
have been cut in the reserves, the remaining ones are given out to
local contractors who need them. The money which they will pay
in this case is called ‘OTV’, i.e. Out Turn Volume. This means that you will pay for the volume of what you take out
Conversion is the process of splitting the log with sawing
machines into commercial or marketable sizes. The two popular
methods of con version are plain sawn’ and ‘quarter sawn.
Plain sawn method (also called through and through’ or tangential method’): This is the method of simply sawing the log
plank after plank. Many operators prefer this method-, because
it is a simple, quick and cheap way to convert logs into planks
suited to various needs.
2. Quarter sawn method: This is the method of conversion along
the rays ot the wood. This method needs more attention than the
plain sawn because the log has to be turned. The planks
produced by this method are more stable and they produce stripe
Logs contain a lot of water and are usually very heavy. The water
may sometimes be as much as half the weight of the wood. The
water in wood is called moisture or sap. When the log is sawn into
planks, they must be dried because wet timber is more exposed to
decay: it is weaker in strength and more liable to warp and split
than dry timber.
Seasoning is the process of reducing the water (moisture)
in wood. The reasons for seasoning or drying wood are
1. It makes wood more stable.
2. It makes wood lighter in weight.
3. It makes wood stronger because the drier the wood, the stronger it becomes (up to a point).
4. It makes wood more durable because fungi andinsects usually attack the starch in the wet sapwood.
5. It makes wood take paints, polishes, etc., more