Fatty oils are fixed or non volatile oils. They

cannot be distiled without being decomposed.

They contain glycerin in combiation with a

fatty acid.

They are may be liquid or sometimes solid at

room temperature Those that are liquid

usually contain oleic acid while the solid ones

contain palmitic or stearic acid.

Fatty oils are insoluble in water but soluble in

several organic solvents. Breakdown products

of fats are fatty acids

accompanied by a rancid odor and taste.

Boiling a fat with an alkali causes it to

decompose and the fatty acid unites with the

alkali to form soap.

The addition of lye (a strong chemical cleaner)

or potash will make the soap softer, if soda is

used a hard soap results.

Fatty oils are bland and lack the strong taste,

odor and antiseptic qualities of essential oils.

They are suitable for human food. These

edible oils contain both solid and liquid fats

and form an importantpart of the human







Vegetable fats and oils are found in greatest

abundance in frui


and seeds. While fats and


oils do OcCur in the roots, stalks, branches.


and leaves of plants in small quantities not

enough for commercial purposes.

Some seeds and fruits, however, the fat

Content is great in several cases as high as 355

PeT cent; in dried coconuts 65 per cent and

these are the commercial sources of vegetaDle



In some seeds the fat is found in the germ or

embryo; this is common in cereals. The olive

contains a large amount of fat in the pulp

Surrounding the kernel and only a smaller

amount in the kernel itself, while in the oil

palm both the pulp and the kernel contain

large amounts. The fat from the pulp may

have characteristics quite different from those

of the fat in the kernel.



Semidrying oils

Drying oils

Non drying oils,

Fats or tallow



The drying oils can absorb oxygen and on

exposure dry into thin elastic films and are

Lhereby converted into plastic. elastic, Tesih

like substances. Hence, when exposed 11 a

thin layer, as in painting, they form a toigh.

clastic. waterproof film which adheres ighty

to the painted surface and protects it from the

Weather. These oils are important in the paint and varnish industries


The nondrying oils are oils that remain liauid

at room temperature and do not form a film.


The fats are solid or semisolid at room


temperature. They are edible and also useful

for a wide variety of industrial uses: they are

used in soaps. cosmetics, lubricants, leather

dressings, and candles. They are used in the


processes of wool manufacture, especially



Olive: Olea europaea: Olive tree is a small


Mediterranean Countries and to a lesser

degree in South Africa, Australia, South

America, Mexico and the United States. The








fruit of this plant has been valued as an


important source of an edible oil. It is used

1or canning sardines. It is als used in lamps, in some religions for anointing, and for

medicimal and cosmetic uses. Olive oil is

obtained by pressing thhe ripe fruits. The finest

grades are golden yellow and almost odourless

and are obtained by expressing the oil from

the pulp by hand. They are used for culinary

and medicinal purposes, while the inlerior

grades are greenish yellow and are obtained


mechanically. They used for making soaps and as lubricants

Groundnut or Peanut Arachis hypogea



propagated by seed. The groundnut pod

contains about 2- 4 nuts. The nuts have high

content of both protein (30%) and oil (40

50%). They are also rich in vitamins A and E.

Groundnuts are used as cooking oils and also

as fats for making margarine. The oil is also

used for packing fish e.g. in sardines. The

Residue left after oil extraction is used as oil

cakes for feeding animals.

They can be eaten raw, used in recipes, made

into solvents and oils, used in make-up.

medicines, textile materials, peanut butter, as

well as many other uses.

Popular confections made from peanuts




butter cookies). peanut brittle, and shelled

peanutSo are

usually roasted in oil and packed in retail-size

plastic bags or hemetically sealed cans. Dry

roasted salted peanuts are also marketed in


include salted

(sandwiches, peanut candy bars,






nuts (plain/roasted). Salted


significant quantities.


groundnuts. Nigeria used to be the largest

exporter of groundnuts.

Animal fats and oilo


Lanolin: Extracted from sheep’s Wool and is

used in the manufacture of conditionerS and



bocicldo 3d


Suet: Suet is a hard fat found around the

loins and kidneys sheep or cattle (cow). It is

Solid at room temperature but ifthe

temperature is warmer, beef fat can melt or

turn rancid. Suet is one of the most popular

bird foods.


food to attract




the best


woodpeckers. It is also used in making


ish oil is oil derived from the tissues oy

1sh. Fish oils contain the omega-3 fatty acl1ds.

Fish do not actually produce omega-3 latty


acids, but

consuming either microalgae or prey 11s t


instead accumulate them by








accumulated omega-3


together with a high quantity of antioxidants

from microalgae.




Updated: February 9, 2020 — 7:02 pm

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