Fatty oils are fixed or non volatile oils. They
cannot be distiled without being decomposed.
They contain glycerin in combiation with a
They are may be liquid or sometimes solid at
room temperature Those that are liquid
usually contain oleic acid while the solid ones
contain palmitic or stearic acid.
Fatty oils are insoluble in water but soluble in
several organic solvents. Breakdown products
of fats are fatty acids
accompanied by a rancid odor and taste.
Boiling a fat with an alkali causes it to
decompose and the fatty acid unites with the
alkali to form soap.
The addition of lye (a strong chemical cleaner)
or potash will make the soap softer, if soda is
used a hard soap results.
Fatty oils are bland and lack the strong taste,
odor and antiseptic qualities of essential oils.
They are suitable for human food. These
edible oils contain both solid and liquid fats
and form an importantpart of the human
Vegetable fats and oils are found in greatest
abundance in frui
and seeds. While fats and
oils do OcCur in the roots, stalks, branches.
and leaves of plants in small quantities not
enough for commercial purposes.
Some seeds and fruits, however, the fat
Content is great in several cases as high as 355
PeT cent; in dried coconuts 65 per cent and
these are the commercial sources of vegetaDle
In some seeds the fat is found in the germ or
embryo; this is common in cereals. The olive
contains a large amount of fat in the pulp
Surrounding the kernel and only a smaller
amount in the kernel itself, while in the oil
palm both the pulp and the kernel contain
large amounts. The fat from the pulp may
have characteristics quite different from those
of the fat in the kernel.
4.7.1 CLASSIFICATION OF PLANT FATTY OILS
Non drying oils,
Fats or tallow
1. DRYING OILSS
The drying oils can absorb oxygen and on
exposure dry into thin elastic films and are
Lhereby converted into plastic. elastic, Tesih
like substances. Hence, when exposed 11 a
thin layer, as in painting, they form a toigh.
clastic. waterproof film which adheres ighty
to the painted surface and protects it from the
Weather. These oils are important in the paint and varnish industries
2. NON DRYING OILS
The nondrying oils are oils that remain liauid
at room temperature and do not form a film.
The fats are solid or semisolid at room
temperature. They are edible and also useful
for a wide variety of industrial uses: they are
used in soaps. cosmetics, lubricants, leather
dressings, and candles. They are used in the
processes of wool manufacture, especially
Olive: Olea europaea: Olive tree is a small
Mediterranean Countries and to a lesser
degree in South Africa, Australia, South
America, Mexico and the United States. The
fruit of this plant has been valued as an
important source of an edible oil. It is used
1or canning sardines. It is als used in lamps, in some religions for anointing, and for
medicimal and cosmetic uses. Olive oil is
obtained by pressing thhe ripe fruits. The finest
grades are golden yellow and almost odourless
and are obtained by expressing the oil from
the pulp by hand. They are used for culinary
and medicinal purposes, while the inlerior
grades are greenish yellow and are obtained
mechanically. They used for making soaps and as lubricants
Groundnut or Peanut Arachis hypogea
propagated by seed. The groundnut pod
contains about 2- 4 nuts. The nuts have high
content of both protein (30%) and oil (40
50%). They are also rich in vitamins A and E.
Groundnuts are used as cooking oils and also
as fats for making margarine. The oil is also
used for packing fish e.g. in sardines. The
Residue left after oil extraction is used as oil
cakes for feeding animals.
They can be eaten raw, used in recipes, made
into solvents and oils, used in make-up.
medicines, textile materials, peanut butter, as
well as many other uses.
Popular confections made from peanuts
butter cookies). peanut brittle, and shelled
usually roasted in oil and packed in retail-size
plastic bags or hemetically sealed cans. Dry
roasted salted peanuts are also marketed in
(sandwiches, peanut candy bars,
nuts (plain/roasted). Salted
groundnuts. Nigeria used to be the largest
exporter of groundnuts.
Animal fats and oilo
Lanolin: Extracted from sheep’s Wool and is
used in the manufacture of conditionerS and
Suet: Suet is a hard fat found around the
loins and kidneys sheep or cattle (cow). It is
Solid at room temperature but ifthe
temperature is warmer, beef fat can melt or
turn rancid. Suet is one of the most popular
food to attract
woodpeckers. It is also used in making
ish oil is oil derived from the tissues oy
1sh. Fish oils contain the omega-3 fatty acl1ds.
Fish do not actually produce omega-3 latty
consuming either microalgae or prey 11s t
instead accumulate them by
together with a high quantity of antioxidants