Biological science has progressed by breaking down complex fields of study into their component parts to ensure specialty with the aim of proffering solution to challenges of threat to ife and environment. Pathology is a component part of biology. Pathology addresses 4 components of mechanisms of disease cause/etiology development (Pathogenesis), structural alterations of cells

(morphologic changes), and the consequences of changes (clinical manifestations).

When we talk about disease, as biologists, we talk

about life processes and their disturbances as a

result of the diseases caused by pathogens

(disease causing organisms) which invade body

structure of living organisms, residing in the

elements that constitute the chain of different

levels of organization of living things such as cells,

tissues, and organs, to cause injury. Cell is the

primary sight at which disease is produced. The

resultant induced disease hampers the normal

functions of the anatomical and physiological

processes that keep the organism living, resulting

in disturbances of specific biochemical processes.The various functional and structural properties of

cells and tissues provide the critical points for induction of disease.

Disease is caused by quantitative alterations in existing functions and

structures of cells. Disease therefore means an

abnormality of organelle structure and function

within a particular cell (a sub-cellular lesion)

making a cell to deviate from its normal function,

causing a cascade of abnormal reaction in different

cells and tissues at the organismic level. This

means that the effect of an alterations at cellular

and sub cellular level is expressed at the

organismic level (organ). Cellular basis of disease

means that disease condition occurs when the

various functions and structures of cell organelles

or cell inclusions are affected. The effects of

abnormal cell activities of cell or cell injury are

caused by elements in the environment or

biological materials knovwn as pathogens. When

pathogens invade llving systems and complete

their life cycle within, they adversely affect the

basic and fundamental functions of any cell

organelle they are found in. Therefore, the

pathological significance of studying the cell is that

the cell is the primary loci for initiating disease.

After wide research, I have come to make this

statement: “that disease is a condition when the

specific functions of cell organelles are distorted”.

The extent of disturbance determines the survival

or death of the cell. Products from pathogen

activities for adaptation in their new environment

tend to increase the molecular composition of cell

organelles causing physical or chemical changes of

their contents (alteration), resulting in

degeneration of cells; progressive deterioration of

cell or and infiltration-injury expressed by the

intracellular or extracellular accumulations of


normal or abnormal substances.

Accumulations of substances in



quantities consist of molecules that are normally

present in cells such as tryglyceroids, glycogen,

calcium, uric acid, melanin, and bilirubin leading to a condition

in which abnormal metabolic

accumulates because of faulty synthetic or

degradatives accumulates because of faulty

synthetic or degradative pathogen amyloidosia.

Also exogenous materials (a group known to cause

harm) such as mineral dusts, pigments (pollutants)

and certain heavy metals which may accumulate in

the cytoplasm of cells after their introduction into

the body by inhalation, ingestion or injection which

represents morphological changes of injured which

represents morphological changes of injured cells leading to disturbance to biological processes.









Updated: July 24, 2020 — 11:49 pm

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